Hormone secretion is stimulated by a message from the pituitary gland, known as the master gland.
In women, the ovaries produce and release the two main female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone. Although testosterone is considered a male hormone, females also produce and need a small amount of this, too.
Your adrenal glands, located at the top of each kidney, make small amounts of estrogen and estrogen is also produced in adipose or fat tissue.
In a healthy, balanced body, estrogen must first be made water soluble to be eliminated from the body via sweat, urine, or feces. This happens via the Phase I and Phase II pathways in the liver.
In the Phase 1 pathway, the fat-soluble compound enters the liver, and its structure is changed in order to prepare it for removal from the body.
In the Phase II pathway, molecules are added to the compound in order for it to be eliminated from the body safely.
This is known as estrogen clearance and is critically important, as estrogens that are not properly metabolized and cleared by the liver circulate back into the bloodstream in a more toxic form.
What results when this estrogen is returned to the body is estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance contributes to many diseases for women, such as PCOS (PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome), PMS, menstrual irregularities, infertility, and even breast cancer.